Mohamed Tharwat1,2 1Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Qassim University, P.O. Box 6622, Buraidah, 51452, Saudi Arabia 2Department of Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt
Cardiac biomarkers are helpful in the early detection, diagnosis and prognosis of cardiac and non-cardiac diseases. Cardiac troponin I (cTnI), one of these biomarkers, is a highly sensitive and specific marker for myocardial injury in humans and in veterinary medicine. cTnI elevates in serum after acute myocardial injury because of leakage from the damaged myocardial cells. Creatine kinase myocardial band (CK-MB), another cardiac biomarker, has been found high following exercise. With chest pain in humans, the level of CK-MB increases and subsequently declines to normal range. In animals, however, a rise in CK-MB is not always indicative of acute myocardial infarction. cTnI therefore is currently the preferred cardiac biomarker in human medicine for assessing myocardial damage, with absolute specificity and higher sensitivity. The degree of increase in cTnI has been shown to correlate with the extent of myocardial damage and with survival in humans and animals. In camels, the evaluation of cardiac disease can be challenging; the patient history, clinical data and routine blood examination are often nonspecific. Therefore, bloodbased biomarkers that are capable of detecting and staging cardiac disease are a subject of considerable interest. Myocardial damage, as demonstrated by elevated cTnI in blood, appears to be a common sequel to a wide variety of both primarily cardiac disease and of other diseases that do not primarily involve the cardiovascular system. This review was written to shed light on the commonly used cardiac biomarkers in camel medicine cTnI and CK-MB and its clinical significance.
Key words: Camels, cardiac biomarkers, cardiac troponin I, creatine kinase–myocardial band, heart diseases