Camels and Camelids


Journal Edition: April 2022
Article DOI: 10.5958/2277-8934.2022.00013.3
Published On:

Hussein Y.A1,2, Meligy A.M.A.1, El-Ghareeb W.R.3,4, Al-Shokair S.S.1 and Abdel-Raheem, S.M.3,5
1Department of Clinical Sciences, 3Department of Public Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, King Faisal University,
KSA, P.O. Box: 400, Al-Ahsa, 31982, Saudi Arabia
2Department of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Alexandria University, Egypt
4Food Control Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519, Egypt
5Department of Animal Nutrition and Clinical Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt


The study was carried out to determine the residual levels of heavy metals (zinc, iron, copper, lead, and cadmium) in tissues (meat, liver and kidney), serum and hair of 3 camel breeds (Magaheem, Maghateer and Wadha) collected from Al-Omran slaughterhouse, eastern province, Saudi Arabia by using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. Camel breed influenced Zinc (Zn) accumulation and distribution in organs, muscle, and arranged in descending manner as follows: hair> liver> muscle > kidney> serum. The iron content in all male camel samples was considerably greater than in female camel. Furthermore, significant strong positive correlation between muscle and serum iron was established. All examined samples contained copper (Cu), the highest value was 17.78 ± 0.85 mg kg–1 detected in liver samples of Maghateer breed. The descending manner of Cu as follows: liver > muscle > hair > kidney > serum. In addition, the female liver contained significantly higher Cu than the male liver. Lead (Pb) residue was detected in all examined samples among different breeds except muscle samples of Maghateer and Magaheem breeds. The cadmium (Cd) values ranged from 0.0001 mg kg–1 in the muscle of the Maghateer breed to 4.5113 mg kg–1 in the hair of the Wadham breed. The meat and offal of all examined breeds contained lower Pb and Cd levels than the maximum permissible limit. The estimated daily intake (EDI) due to consumption of camel meat below the tolerable daily intake (TDI). In addition, the hazard ratio (HR) and hazard indices (HIs) values were far below one for adults.
Key words: Camel, heavy metals, metal toxicity, risk assessment, tissues