Camels and Camelids


Journal Edition: April 2022
Article DOI: 10.5958/2277-8934.2022.00002.9
Published On:

Mahmoud Kandeel1,2, Mahmoud G. El Sebaei1,3, Mohammed M. Ba Abdullah4, Saad I. Al-Sultan5 and Sherief M. Abdel-Raheem5,6
1Department of Biomedical Sciences, 5Department of Public Health, College of Veterinary Medicine,
4Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia
2Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafrelsheikh, Egypt
3Department of Biochemistry and Chemistry of Nutrition, Faculty of
Veterinary Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt
6Department of Animal Nutrition and Clinical Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt


Camels are well known for their high blood glucose content and marked glucose tolerance. In order to understand the glycemic control in camels the role of insulin receptor was investigated. The camel insulin receptor sequence, structure model, and domain content were compared with those of humans and other vertebrates. The results indicated 100% identity rate in old world camels, 99.7% identity rate with new world camels and 96% with humans. There was a high identity rate among insulin receptors in domestic animals (82.3–100%). Despite the conserved features of the insulin 1 binding site (the main functional insulin molecules), the second insulin-binding site in camel insulin receptors showed interesting differences. Most of the sequence differences between human and camel insulin receptors were concentrated in the insertion domains (ID), particularly the ID-β loop. ID-α’~αCT’~ID-β, which is important for insulin receptor signal transduction, showed a greater positive electrostatic potential in camels. Such differences might be associated with the noticed hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in camels by affecting the movement of the α-CT helix which lies between the IDs and significantly affects the main insulin molecules, lowering the affinity at insulin site 1 and by affecting the transmission of the insulin signal to the intracellular domain.
Key words: Camel, dynamics, glucose, insulin receptor, insulin resistance, simulation