Camels and Camelids


Journal Edition: April 2021
Article DOI: 10.5958/2277-8934.2021.00013.8
Published On: 04-04-2021 05:43

Mohamed Tharwat1,2
1Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine,
Qassim University, P.O. Box 6622, Buraidah, 51452, Saudi Arabia.
2Department of Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, 44519, Zagazig, Egypt


This article was written to evaluate camels with obstructive urolithiasis with special reference to the clinical, ultrasonographic and postmortem findings. Twenty male camels (Camelus dromedarius) with urolithiasis were examined. Of them, 18 had ruptured bladder and 2 had ruptured urethra. Main clinical findings included depression, anorexia and anuria. Ventral abdominal swelling was also detected in front of the penis with swelling of the prepuce. Exploratory laparotomy showed a massive amount of reddish uroperitoneum. In the camels with ruptured urethra, penile and ventral edema was detected in front of the penis with swelling of the prepuce. The urine penetrated the adjacent tissues that also yielded dark red urine on aspiration. The most important ultrasonographic findings included a collapsed urinary bladder in animals with ruptured bladder. Uroperitoneum was imaged easily where viscera were seen floating in the urine. Dilatation of the pelvic and penile urethra as a result of calculi was detected by ultrasonography. The urinary bladder wall was intact in cases before bladder perforation. Hydronephrosis with parenchymal pressure atrophy was also detected. The obstructing calculus was also seen within the penile urethra as a hyperechoic mass with distal acoustic shadowing. The perforated urinary bladder was also seen. In cases with ruptured urethra, the bladder wall was imaged intact and it contained hyperechoic sediment. Postmortem examination confirmed the ultrasonographic findings.
Key words: Camels, dromedary, imaging, ultrasonography, urolithiasis