PREVALENCE, CHARACTERISATION AND ANTIBIOTIC SENSITIVITY OF INTRAMAMMARY INFECTIONS IN CAMEL
Journal Year: 2003
Journal Month: June
Published On: 01-12-2018 06:54:00
Article DOI:

F.C. Tuteja, S.K. Dixit, S.K. Ghorui, Aminu Deen and M.S. Sahani
National Research Centre on Camel, Jorbeer, P.B.07, Bikaner-334001, INDIA

ABSTRACT

A total of 282 quarters milk samples were examined from 71 apparently healthy camels by cultural examination and somatic cell count to know the prevalence of non-clinical mastitis in this species. Out of these 39.72% (112/282) of quarters were culturally positive. Whereas, 65.60% (185/282) had somatic cell count (SCC) more than 50000 per ml of milk. Of these, 34.40% (97/282) and 5.32% (15/282) were having ‘subclinical (culturally +ve and SCC>500000/ml)’ and ‘Latent (culturally +ve and SCC<500000/ml)’ mastitis, respectively according to the International Dairy Federation criteria adopted for cattle. While 31.20% of the quarters were having nonspecific (culturally -ve and SCC>500000/ml)’ mastitis. No apparent difference was observed between fore and hind quarters as regards to both infection level as well as elevation of SCC. Mean pH of quarter milk samples was within the normal range in all the non clinical quarters, however, in case of clinically infected quarters there was a significant rise in the mean pH (7.19).
Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most predominant (27.83%) organism followed by unclassified streptococci (20.87%), Staph. aureus (20.0%), Str. agalactiae (10.43%), Str. dysgalactiae (10.43%), Corynebacterium spp. (9.57%) and Bacillus spp. (0.87%). Amongst Staph. aureus strains 82.61% were associated with a SCC>500000/ml. Similarly, Staph. epidermidis 90%, Str. agalactiae 58.33%, Str. dysgalactiae, 100%; unclassified streptococci, 91.66%, Corynebacterium spp. 81.81% and Bacillus spp. 100%, respectively, were associated with SCC>500000 per ml. The mean SCC for the above pathogens was 11.1 x 105, 19.5 x 105, 11.7 x 105, 10.7 x 105, 12.4 x 105, 8.2 x 105 and 9.2 x 105, respectively.
A total of 55 isolates of staphylococci including 23 coagulase-positive isolates from camel intramammary infections were characterised by different biochemical tests. The different species of staphylococci identified in order of their frequency were Staph. aureus (30.91%), Staph. hyicus (10.91%), Staph. intermedius (7.27%), Staph. haemolyticus (7.27%), Staph. auricularis (7.27%), Staph. sciuri (7.27%), Staph. hominis (5.45%), Staph. epidermidis (3.64%), Staph. capitis (1.82%) and Staph. warneri (1.82%). Out of 55 isolates 9 isolates could not be identified with the present identification system used. All of these species were associated with raised SCC of milk.
As many as 114 isolates recovered from intramammary infections in camels were subjected to in vitro chemotherapeutic sensitivity testing by the disc-diffusion method using 19 antimicrobials. The isolates comprised of Staph. aureus (23), Staph. epidermidis (32), Str. agalactiae (12), Str. dysgalactiae (12), unclassified streptococci (24) and Corynebacterium spp. (11). Variable chemotherapeutic sensitivity pattern was observed for different species of organisms. In considering overall efficacy, irrespective of the species of the organisms, 100% of the isolates were sensitive to chloramphenicol, cephalexin, amoxycillin, and amoxyclav. More than 90% were sensitive to tetracycline, oxytetracycline, cloxacillin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, lincomycin and penicillin. Sensitivity to kanamycin, polymyxin-b, nitrofurantoin, neomycin, and ampicillin was more than 80%. Whereas 79.8, 76.3 and 72.8% of the isolates were sensitive to spiramycin, erythromycin and furazolidone, respectively.
Key words : Antibiotic sensitivity, camel, characterisation, intramammary infections, prevalence, Staphylococcus species


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