Journal Year: 2020
Journal Month: August
Published On: 04-09-2020 09:10:00
Article DOI: 10.5958/2277-8934.2020.00023.5

Mohamed Tharwat1,2
1Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine,
Qassim University, P.O. Box 6622, Buraidah, 51452, Saudi Arabia
2Department of Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt


Inflammation and infection biomarkers or acute phase proteins (APPs) can be used in diagnosis, prognosis and in monitoring response to therapy, as well as in general health screening. It has also been suggested that APPs may be useful in the assessment of animal welfare. Acute phase reaction or response (APR) is a positive (increase) or negative (decrease) response of APPs to infection, inflammation, trauma or other causes and it might be a physiological protective mechanism during inflammatory events. The APPs have received attention as biomarkers for APR due to its low physiological levels, a fast incline, marked rise in concentration during APR that eases detection and a fast decline after cessation of a stimulus. In ruminants, the major APPs are haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA), and have been proposed as sensitive and rapid indicators of inflammatory disturbances. Hp is a major APP in numerous species of livestock and domesticated animals as well as in camels. Elevated Hp concentrations occur not only with inflammation, but also with some conditions not generally associated with inflammation or tissue damage. SAA is considered also as one of the major acute-phase reactants in vertebrates. Elevated serum SAA levels are found following inflammation and also under conditions unrelated to inflammation such as physical stress and parturition. In camels, it was found that chronic infections as well as non-inflammatory stressors following parasitic infections, at parturition, following stimulation by electroejaculation and following race stimulate APPs production. This review describes the commonly used biomarkers in camel medicine as indicators of infection and inflammation.
Key words: Acute phase proteins, biomarkers, camels, haptoglobin, serum amyloid A

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