Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is an attenuated type of poxvirus vaccine. Many vaccines against infectious diseases, which include influenza, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, cancer and lately, Ebola virus and MERS-CoV, have been developed using MVA as a viral vector. MERS-CoV encodes 4 structural proteins, nucleocapsid (N) or spike (S), also the membrane (M), in addition to (envelope) (E) (proteins), are all encoded by the MERS-CoV genome. Most viral vector-based MERS vaccines exhibit immunogenicity in vaccinated animals and use the full-length S or S1 protein of MERS-CoV as the coding antigen. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were utilised. The research strategy used keywords, keyword combinations, MeSH terms, field tags, Boolean operators “AND” and “OR,” and truncations. Search strings were built from these elements to ensure an accurate acquisition of the best output. The population, exposure, control, outcome, and studies (PECOS) criteria were used in this study. In a homologous vaccination regimen, MVA-MERS-S generated potent antibodies as well as specific B-cells, although T-cell responses showed a heterogeneous design among cohorts. A booster or third immunisation is significant because it increases the longevity and levels of antibodies and B-cells specific to MERS-CoV-S. Furthermore, the antibodies’ levels and capacity to neutralise is improved after the late booster immunisation. Follow-up studies and large-scale clinical trials are required to confirm the circulation and immunity status against MERS-CoV in camels.
Key words: MERS-CoV, meta-analysis, MVA, spike protein, seroprevalence, vaccine