Abdullah I.A. Al-Mubarak1, Anwar A.G. Al-Kubati1,2, Jamal Hussen1, Mahmoud Kandeel3,4 and Maged Gomaa Hemida1,5
1Department of Microbiology, 3Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine,
King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa 31982, Saudi Arabia
2Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Thamar University, Dhamar, Yemen
4Department of Pharmacology, 5Department of Virology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine,
Kafrelsheikh University, Kafrelsheikh 33516, Egypt
Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is one of the most leading causes of diarrhoea in many species of animals including camelids. Special attention is being paid to studying various aspects of the BVDV infection, pathogenesis, epidemiology, diagnosis and vaccines in the bovine species. Little is still known about these aspects in camelids especially dromedaries. The development of accurate diagnostic tests is a critical step for the identification of infected animals, especially persistently infected and for the control and eradication of BVDV. Although adaptation of the currently used diagnostic assays for the virus in the bovine and ovine species for the diagnosis of BVDV in the camelids, it is highly recommended to develop novel specific diagnostic assays of the virus in camels. There are several strategies for the diagnosis of BVDV including virus isolation, detection of viral (antigens, antibodies and nucleic acids) and identification of the circulating strains of the virus by doing sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Identification of the persistently infected animals is one of the main challenges facing the diagnosis and control of the virus. Our main objectives are to highlight the most recent advances in the field of BVDV diagnosis, currently used diagnostic assays and suggested some specific approaches for the diagnosis of BVDV in camelids. Fine-tuning the currently used diagnostic assays and development of other novel specific assays to detect BVDV infection in dromedary camels will have a substantial positive impact on the control of BVDV infections in camels.
Key words: Assays, BVDV, camels, detection, diagnosis, isolation, molecular