Current genetic diversity of 5 local breeds of Mongolian camels and 2 samples of Camelus ferus was studied and compared their levels of variability. DNA was extracted using Qiaamp® DNA kit (Qiagen) and amplified mtDNA D-loop control region from 36 blood samples of Mongolian Bactrian camels and 2 from Mongolian Camelus ferus. Three common haplotypes (H1, H2, H6) and 4 unique haplotypes (H3, H4, H5, H8) revealed in the population of domestic camels based on the mitochondrial DNA region. For the further study we carried out best result 26 sequences. We did not find high inbreeding levels in the different breeds. The phylogenetic analysis suggested that domestic and wild camels have two distinct lineages.
Key words: Camel, genetic diversity, mitochondrial DNA, Mongolian camel breeds