Camels and Camelids


Journal Edition: April 2022
Article DOI: 10.5958/2277-8934.2022.00011.X
Published On:

M.M. Waheed1,2, I.M. Ghoneim1,2, M.M. Fayez3,4, S.M. El-Bahr5,6 and A.M.A. Meligy7,8
1Department of Clinical Sciences, 5Department of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology (Biochemistry),
7Central Diagnostic Lab., College of Veterinary Medicine, King Faisal University,
Al-Ahsa 31982, Al-Hufof P.O. 400, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
2Department of Theriogenology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza 12515, Egypt
3Ministry of Agriculture, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
4Veterinary Serum Research Institute, Cairo-Egypt
6Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Alexandria University, Egypt
8Physiology Department, Plant Protection Research Institute (PPRI), Agricultural Research Centre (ARC), Giza, Egypt


A total of 42 infertile male dromedary camels (4-12 years old, 500-800 kg) and 7 young male camels (control, 2-2.5 years old) were enrolled in the present study. All camels were sedated and preputial swabs were collected and immediately immersed in 1 ml sterile solution of 0.9% NaCl. Preputial swabs were transferred refrigerated within 1 hour to the bacteriological laboratory. After preputial swabbing, semen samples were collected from infertile camels using an electro-ejaculator and evaluated for routine semen quality parameters using the conventional methods. Statistical analyses were conducted by Student’s t-test and Chi-square (X2). Results revealed that semen parameters were reduced in infertile camels with preputial contamination. The bacterial count in 1 ml swab sample was 148x103 and 0.24x103 in infertile mature camels and control immature camels, respectively. Nine bacterial species isolated from 49 camels’ preputial swabs comprised 41 gram-positive species (83.7%) and 8 gram-negative species (16.3%). The swabs of infertile camels had colonies species of Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Corynebacterium, Bacillus, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces, Fusobacterium, Clostridium perfringens at percentages of 35.72% (n=15), 21.43% (n=9), 11.91% (n=5), 9.52% (n=4), 7.14% (n=3), 4.76% (n=2), 4.76% (n=2), 2.38% (n=1), 2.38% (n=1), respectively. Candida colonies appears in concurrence with bacterial colonies in 28.57% (n=12). In control camels, the examined samples had colonies of Streptococcus spp., Bacillus spp. and E. coli spp. at proportions of 42.86% (n=3), 42.86% (n=3), 14.28% (n=1), respectively. Candida spp. observed in 5 colonies (71.43%) of control camels. In conclusion, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and Bacillus were the frequently isolated bacterial spp. from prepuce of camel.
Key words: Bacterial diversity, camels, fungus, prepuce